Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Image Processing and Enhancement Essay Example

Image Processing and Enhancement Essay Example Image Processing and Enhancement Essay Image Processing and Enhancement Essay Remote sensing (RS), also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth? s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. Humans accomplish this task with aid of eyes or by the sense of smell or hearing; so, remote sensing is day-today business for people.Remote sensing can be broadly defined as the collection and interpretation of information about an object, area, or event without being in physical contact with the object. Remote-sensing data play a growing role in studies of natural and semi natural environments, a role that stretches from a visual interpretation to sophisticated extraction of information by advanced image analysis and statistical algorithms. In their raw form, as received from imaging sensors mounted on satellite platforms, remotelysensed data generally contain flaws or deficiencies with respect to a particular application.To extract basic information from remotely-sensed data the flaws or deficiencies must remove or corrected. In this paper I will try to describes some important general means of image correction because it is difficult to decide what should be included under the heading of image correction, since the definition of what is, or is not, a deficiency in the data depends to a considerable extent on the use to which those data are to be put. So I will discuss the title like image Preprocessing, Digital image, image enhancement and other important titles related to Image correction and better image interpretation means.The other idea raised and discussed in this paper is the relationship between vegetation index and vegetation degradation by using remotely sensed data. 2. Function of image preprocessing and its importance for image Analysis The function of an image preprocessing is a means to applying some methods in order to correct image deficiencies and removal of flaws before using the images for other purposes. Mather and Koch (2011) stated that In their raw form, as received from imaging sensors mounted on satellite platforms, remotelys 1 a) before haze removal b) After haze removal 2 Figure 3 Haze Reduction 5 B) Sun angle correction According to Bakker and et al. (2011) stated that The position of the sun relative to the earth changes depending on time of the day and the day of the year. As a result, the image data of different seasons are acquired under different solar illumination. An absolute correction involves dividing the DN-values in the image data by the sine of the solar elevation angle. Landsat 7 ETM+ color infrared composites acquired with different sun angle. (A) The left image was acquired with a sun elevation of 37Â ° and right image. B) With a sun elevation of 42Â °. The difference in reflectance is clearly shown. (C) (B) The left image was corrected to meet the right image. Figure 4 Sun angle Correction 2. 2. Geometric Correction Geometric distortion is an error on image which occurred by one of the two possibilities either internally on the geometry of the sensor or externally the altitude of the sensor or the shape of the object. Supporting to this idea Kuznetsov and et al. (2012) describe that geometric distortion is an error on image, between the actual image coordinates and the ideal image coordinates.Geometric distortion is classified in to internal distortion resultin g from the geometry of the sensor and external distortion resulting from the altitude of the sensor or the shape of the object. 6 To correct such geometric distortion on the image we should use different geometric correction methods. Murayam and Dassanayake (2010) stated that geometric corrections include correcting for geometric distortions due to sensor-Earth geometry variations, and conversion of the data to real world coordinates (e. g. latitude and longitude) on the Earths surface.Conversion of the data to real world coordinates are carried by analyzing well distributed Ground Control Points (GCPs). This is done in two steps Geo-referencing: This involves the calculation of the appropriate transformation from image to terrain coordinates. Landsat 30m ETM+ Image Quickbird . 7m Natural Color Image Ground control points are identified between the two images in recognizable locations. These points should be static relative to temporal change. In this case road intersections are the best source of GCP’s. Features that move through time (i. e. horelines, etc. ) should be avoided if possible. Figure 5 Georeferencing Geocoding: This step involves resembling the image to obtain a new image in which all pixels are correctly positioned within the terrain coordinate system. Resampling is used to determine the digital values to place in the new pixel locations of the corrected output image. Figure 6 Geo coding 7 There are different techniques of resampling methods according Murayam and Dassanayake (2010) there is three techniques of resampling: 1. Nearest Neighborhood 2. Bi-linear interpolation 3. Cubic Convolution 1.Nearest Neighborhood According to Rees (2011) the nearest neighbor approach uses the value of the closest input pixel for the output pixel value. To determine the nearest neighbor, the algorithm uses the inverse of the transformation matrix to calculate the image file coordinates of the desired geographic coordinate. The pixel value occupying the c losest image file coordinate to the estimated coordinate will be used for the output pixel value in the geo-referenced image. This means that the nearest pixel value has more influence than apart pixel. Figure7.Nearest Neighborhood ADVANTAGES: Output values are the original input values. Other methods of resampling tend to average surrounding values. This may be an important consideration when discriminating between vegetation types or locating boundaries. Since original data are retained, this method is recommended before classification. Easy to compute and therefore fastest to use. DISADVANTAGES: Produces a choppy, stair-stepped effect. The image has a rough appearance relative to the original un-rectified data. Data values may be lost, while other values may be duplicated.Figure 1 shows an input file (orange) with a yellow output file superimposed. Input values closest to the center of each output cell are sent to the output file to the right. Notice that values 13 and 22 ar e lost while values 14 and 24 are duplicated. 8 2. Bi-linear interpolation The bilinear interpolation approach uses the weighted average of the nearest four pixels to the output pixel. Figure8. Bi-linear interpolation ADVANTAGES: Stair-step effect caused by the nearest neighbor approach is reduced. Image looks smooth. DISADVANTAGES: Alters original data and reduces contrast by averaging neighboring values together. Is computationally more expensive than nearest neighbor. 3. Cubic Convolution The cubic convolution approach uses the weighted average of the nearest sixteen pixels to the output pixel. The output is similar to bilinear interpolation, but the smoothing effect caused by the averaging of surrounding input pixel values is more dramatic. Figure9. Cubic Convolution ADVANTAGES: Stair-step effect caused by the nearest neighbor approach is reduced. Image looks smooth. DISADVANTAGES: Alters original data and reduces contrast by averaging neighboring values together. Is computa tionally more expensive than nearest neighbor or bilinear interpolation. In general image preprocessing is very essential step for better image analysis and interpretation because it corrects different types of image distortion. 9 Similar to this idea Murayam and Dassanayake (2010) stated that preprocessing includes data operation which normally precedes further manipulation and analysis of the image data to extract specific information. These operations aim to correct distorted or degraded image data to create a more faithful representation of the original scene. . Digital Image Formats and Its Arrangement According to Visual Resource Centre School of Humanities (2011) Digital images are electronic representations of images that are stored on a computer. The most important thing to understand about digital images is that you can? t see them and they don? t have any physical size until they are displayed on a screen or printed on paper. Until that point, they are just a collection o f numbers on the computer? s hard drive that describe the individual elements of a picture and how they are arranged.These elements are called pixel and they are arranged in a grid format with each pixel containing information about its color or intensity. Most of the time Band interleaved by line (BIL), band interleaved by pixel (BIP), and band sequential (BSQ) take as image digital format but this is not true rather they are schemes for storing the actual pixel values of an image in a file. Figure 10 Digital Data Format 10 According to ESRI resource center there are three common image digital formats these are Band interleaved by line (BIL), band interleaved by pixel BIP), and band sequential (BSQ) are three common methods of organizing image data for multiband images. BIL, BIP, and BSQ are not in themselves image formats but are schemes for storing the actual pixel values of an image in a file. While Visual Resource Centre School of Humanities (2010) there are four main file form ats for images: TIFF, JPEG, PNG and GIF. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) Description: TIFF images are usually used for master image files. They contain image information in a lossless format (i. e. no image information is lost when images are saved) and so tend to be fairly large in size.They are therefore a good format for archiving images, but the large file size makes it an unsuitable format for use in web delivery or in presentation software, such as PowerPoint. Good for: master copies of images as all image information is retained when files are saved (lossless format). But: file sizes tend to be large due to lossless format, so TIFF files are not suitable for web delivery or inclusion in PowerPoint presentations. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Description: This is the main format that is used for photographic-type images on the web.It is a „lossy? format: images are compressed when saved and so image information is lost each time the image is edited and saved. T he benefit of compression is a reduction in file size, but the down side is that if too much compression is applied, visible artefacts such as highlighting around areas of high contrast may occur. The following images show the effects on quality and file size of differing levels of compression on the same JPEG image notice the blurring around the edges of the statue in the final image.Good for: web delivery of photographic images due to ability to compress images without too much loss of quality, therefore giving smaller file sizes than TIFF formats. But: too much compression can lead to a loss of quality so care needs to be taken with the quality setting used when saving images. GIF (Graphical Interchange Format) 11 Description: Another format encountered on the Internet, the GIF format is usually used for icons or graphics that contain a limited range of flat colors. It is a lossless format (no information is lost when saving), but as limited color capabilities and so is not suit able for displaying photographs. Good for: web delivery of icons and graphics due to small file size and lossless format. But: supports limited range of colors, so is only suitable for certain types of images. PNG (Portable network graphics) Description: PNG is a relatively new web graphics format, designed primarily to replace the GIF format for use on the Internet, and potentially rival TIFF in the long term as an archival format due to its better compression performance.Its main advantages over GIF are an improved lossless compression method and support for „true color. Although software support for the PNG format has been slow in developing, this is now beginning to change and it may become a more common format in the future. Good for: web delivery due to lossless compression technique resulting in files of small size but high quality. But: JPEG format gives better results for photographic images, and older web browsers and programs may not support the PNG format. 4. Purpo se of image enhancement and Method of Image Enhancement 4. 1.Purpose of Image Enhancement The purpose of image enhancement is forming good contrast to visualize images in a better way in order to understand or extract the intended information from the image. Similarly Vij and singh (2008) discussed Image enhancement is a mean as the improvement of an image appearance by increasing dominance of some features or by decreasing ambiguity between different regions of the image. Image enhancement processes consist of a collection of techniques that seek to improve the visual appearance of an image or to convert the image to a form better suited for analysis by a human or machine.The other writers Shankar Ray (2011) also describe, Image enhancement is the modification of image, by changing the pixel brightness values, to improve its visual impact. Image enhancement techniques are performed by deriving the new brightness value for a pixel either from its existing value or from the brightnes s values of a set of surrounding pixels. 12 4. 2. Method of Image Enhancement According to Department of US Army (2003) method of image enhancement classified in to four these are 1) Contrast enhancement 2) band ratio 3) spatial filtering and 4) principle components.The type of enhancement performed will depend on the appearance of the original scene and the goal of the interpretation. This indicate that performing all methods of enhancement for one image may not be necessary and selection of methods are vary depending on for what purpose the image is prepared or what type of information is extracted from the image. 1) Contrast enhancement-such types of enhancement mostly occur to increase the brightness of the image by changing the DN Values of the image. According to Al-amri (2011) one of the most important quality factors in satellite images comes from its contrast.Contrast enhancement is frequently referred to as one of the most important issues in image processing. Contrast str etching is an enhancement method performed on an image for locally adjusting each picture element value to improve the visualization of structures in both darkest and lightest portions of the image at the same time. Of course there are different techniques of image contrast enhancement like Liner contrast, histogram equalization, histogram stretch and the like but the mean idea is discussed on above even though there is slight difference performing each techniques.Before contrast enhancement Figure 11 Contrast Enhancement 13 After contrast enhancement 2) Band ratio-using contrast techniques help to enhance the images with related to brightness problems but this technique cannot solve problems like shadowiness and the like such image enhancement is takes place by using band ratio techniques. According to Department of US Army (2003) stated that Band ratio is commonly used band arithmetic method in which one spectral band is proportional with another spectral band.This simple method r educes the effect of shadowing caused by topography, highlights particular image elements, and accentuates temporal differences. 3) Spatial filtering –this types of enhancement is very important to avoid over exaggerated details for specific place in the image. Murayam and Dassanayake (2010) describe spatial filtering as spatial filter is designed to emphasize larger, homogeneous areas of similar tone and reduce the smaller detail in an image, this serve to smooth the appearance of an image. Low pass filters are very useful for reducing random noise.It is occasionally advantageous to reduce the detail and exaggerated particular features in an image 4) Principal components- According to Department of US Army (2003) the principal component analysis (PCA) is a technique that transform the pixel brightness values. These transformations compress the data by drawing out maximum covariance and remove correlated elements. The other writer Rees (2001) also stated that the principal co mponents of a multiband image are the set of linear combination of the bands that are both independent of and also uncorrelated with, one another. . Purpose of image Transformation and Method of Image Transformation 5. 1. Purpose of image Transformation Image transformation is a means to re-express an image in a different manner which means it gives a chance to Cooke in good way. According to UNEP (2005) The Term: Transform means arithmetic operator It is all arithmetic operations that allow the generation of a new composite image from 1 or 2 or more bands of a multi-spectral, multi-temporal, multi-frequencies (wavelengths), multi-polarization, multi-incidence angle images.The resulting image may have properties which makes it suitable to particular purpose than the original. 14 1) New Information extraction from the exited data like Change detection, vegetation info, geological info 2. Data dimensionality reduction storage efficiency processing efficiency reduce the # of bands and reduce time 3. Produce more physically relevant spectral feature space Similarly Mather and Koch (2011) discussed an image transform is an operation that reexpresses in a different, and possibly more meaningful, form all or part of the information content of a multispectral or grey scale image.From the above idea we can understand that by applying image transformation with different transformation techniques we can extract new information with best visualization and minimum storage. 5. 2. Method of Image Transformation Different writers classified method of image transformation differently because of their purpose study for this paper I choose UNEP (2005) Method of image transformation. According to UNEP(2005) Method Image transformation can be classified into 6 these are 1. Simple Arithmetic Operations 2. Empirically-Based Image Transformation 3.Principal Component Analysis 4. Multiple Discriminant Analysis 5. Hue, Saturation and Intensity (HIS) 6. Fourier Transformation 1. Simple Arithmetic Operations Applying one of arithmetic operation among Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division to perform simple transformation. They performed on 2 or more co-registered images of the same geographical area. The images could be separate spectral bands from single MSS or TM data set or they may be individual band s from data sets that have been imaged at different dates. 1. Image Addition If multiple images of a given region are available for approximately the same date and if part of one of the images has some noise (spectral problem, haze, fog, cloud), then that part can be compensated from the other images available. 15 1. 2 Image Subtraction: To assess the degree of change in an area, two dates of coo-registered images can be used with subtraction operation. October 1988 Figure 12. Change Detection 1. 3 Image Multiplication: May 1992 If the analyst is interested in a part of an image, then extracting that area can be done by multiplying the area by 1 and t he rest by 0.This applied only when the boundary of the area of interest is irregular. 1. 4 Image Division: Image Ratio: Dividing the pixels in one image by the corresponding pixels in a second image. Most commonly used transformation. It is very important transformation techniques because ? ? Certain aspect of the shape of spectral reflectance curves of the different earth surface cover types can be brought out by ratio. Undesirable effects on the recorded images such as the effect of variable illumination resulting from variation in topography can be reduced by ratio. . Empirically-Based Image Transformation Experience with Landsat MSS data for agriculture areas and with the difficulties encountered in the use of ratio transformed and Principal Component, led to the development of Image Transformation that was based on the OBSERVATIONS: 16 2. 1 Perpendicular Vegetation Index PVI A plot of reflectance measured in the visible red band against reflectance in the Near IR for a partly vegetated area will results in a plot like and use soil line for calculating vegetation distance from the line two-dimension space. . 2 Tasseled Cap Transformation PVI considers spectral variation in two of the 4 Landsat MSS bands and use distance from a soil line in the two-dimension space defined by these two MSS bands a a measure of biomass of green leaf area. 3. Principal Component Analysis PCA Adjacent bands in Multi-spectral Scanner remotely sensed data (images) are generally correlated. Multi-band visible/NIR images of vegetated areas show negative correlation between NIR and visible red bands, and positive correlation among the visible bands Green and Red.This is because of the spectral characteristics of vegetation are such that as vigor or greenness of the vegetation increase the red reflectance diminishes and NIR increases. The presence of correlation among the bands of the optical reflected MSS images implies that there is REDUNDENCY in the data. This means that some inf ormation is being repeated. It is the repetition of the information between bands that is reflected in the correlation. Principal component analysis helps to remove such redundancy through compress the data by drawing out maximum covariance and remove correlated elements. 4.Multiple Discriminant Analysis Image transformation using linear function called discriminant function. It represents the coordinate axes in the dimensional space that defined by the spectral bands which making up the data. As in PCA the relationship between the spectral bands and the discriminant functions axis derived and the coordinates of the individual pixel vector computed in terms of discriminant function. A simple example: if you have two groups of land with special reflectance that can be discriminated on the basis of the measurement in the dimensional space or in the coordinate axis.Some scientist thinks that this transformation made for special assignment. But despite of that it is found very useful it those special cases where you cannot find solution for them unless using this transformation. 5. Hue, Saturation and Intensity (HIS) Hue: angular variable of the direction of colors Saturation: lightness of the color (toward white) 0-255 scale the amount of white in the color Intensity: color strength 17 I = R+G+B H= (G – B)/I 3B S= (I – 3B)/ I 6. Fourier Transformation All five transformations discussed, they were using multidimensional space (multi-band) of remotely sensed data.Fourier Transformation using single band. The main idea of this transformation is that it uses the gray scale value, which forming a single image or single band, can be viewed as 3-D surface. The raw and column (X,Y) or spatial coordinates defining two axis (X,Y) and the gray scale 0255 value at each pixel giving the 3rd dimension. Therefore, the resulting image or product will show the frequency of certain feature all around the image. So it is a kind of histogram of the image in 3-D. 6. Ve getation index and relation with vegetation degradation 6. What is Vegetation Index? According to Jackson and huete (1991) Vegetation index is calculating of spectral band of data by combining two or more spectral bands of data. Vegetation indices are formed from combinations of several spectral values that are mathematically recombined in such a way as to yield a single value indicating the amount or vigor of vegetation within a pixel . Campbell, (1996) cited in Freitas and et. al (2005). 6. 2 Vegetation index and degradation –the best method of vegetation index is NDVI which is a normalized vegetation index .It a good means to assess the amount of greenness an area in th inverse NDVI indicates the level of degradation of an area. For example Take Bahirdar image in 1990 winter season and calculate the NDVI value and get a result of 0. 7 and after 10 years in2000 take another image of the same season and calculate the NDVI value and get a result of 0. 2. These indicates that in 1990 Bahirdar was covered by green vegetation while the 2000 image show that most of the areas covered by vegetation is degraded and covered by rocks.If the NDVI value approaches to1 the area has good vegetation cover, if the NDVI value approaches to 0 the area has less vegetation which means the area is covered by rocks and if the NDVI value is negative the area has no vegetation rather the area is covered by snow. 18 7 Digital image classification 7. 1 What is Digital Image

Monday, February 24, 2020

International business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International business - Research Paper Example The analysis has been done in terms of the nations’ political and economic climate, their methods of marketing and distribution and also the labor climate in the two countries. Economic and political climate for foreign business Singapore has an extremely successful and developed free market economy. It also offers a corruption free and open environment where prices remain stable and the per capita GDP growth also remain high in comparison to other developed nations. The economy’s high dependence on exports of products like electronic and information technology products, pharmaceutical and growth in financial services make it a popular place for conducting business. The nation has demonstrated a GDP growth of 7.1% between the years 2004 and 2007 (CIA, â€Å"Economy - overview:†). On the other hand Hong Kong also demonstrates a free market economy which depends highly on international finance and trade. The nation’s open economy was however greatly affected by the global economic recession which makes it a less popular place, in comparison to Singapore for doing business. The residents of Hong Kong can establish RMB denominated savings accounts, the RMB denominated corporate, and the Chinese government bonds have also been issued in the nation. Moreover, the RMB trade settlement has also been allowed in Hong Kong. The nation has a GDP growth rate of 3.8% between 1989 and 2010, however the growth gradually slowed down in the year 2009 (CIA-a, â€Å"Economy - overview:†). It is apparent that the higher GDP growth of Singapore in comparison to Hong Kong coupled with a free market economy makes it more popular for conducting business operations. Also the nation’s growth in the financial sector and high dependence on trade and finance compliments the same. Methods for marketing and distribution With improvement of the Singapore economy there has been an increasing amount of affluent consumers who are able and willing to spend and consume more. In addition to this a number of new shopping malls like the VivoCity, Ang Mo Kio Hub and Central have emerged which have further added stimulus to the retail sector since 2007. The existing shopping malls like Centrepoint, White Sands and Tampines Mall have also been revamped, with the new extensions established to accommodate more number of retailers for remaining competitive. The inflows of new retailers in the selling spaces have further attracted more consumers who have been increasingly visiting them. This had boosted their growth further in 2007 (Laposte, â€Å"Singapore†). There are two different categories of consumers in the country Hong Kong. There are the local consumers, who account for 6.5 million numbers, while on the other hand the tourists, who are avid lovers of the luxury items. The tourism sector generates greater than ten billion USD of income every year. It must be noted that tourists who come for shopping in Hong Kong are primarily Chi nese from Mainland. The distribution network comprises of many medium and small family-type enterprises which try to remain in groups. The larger stores like the Lane Crawford, Sogo or display a very upscale image while the supermarkets and the neighboring stores like Wing on, Jusco and Sincere remain more profitable for making bulk products. The second market is more dominated by duopoly by Wellcome and Park'n shop. Hong Kong also has a number of discount stores

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Talent Management Strategy Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Talent Management Strategy - Term Paper Example Conversely, it is through courtesy of proper talent management strategies that organizations have sprang from small corporate fledglings, to reputable multinationals. The blueprints of proper talent management may be seen in the ensuing discourse. Introduction The organization in point is a profit-making business entity which deals in food and beverages. The organization is still in the process of growth and development as it comprises 200 employees, of which 20 are identified as leaders and may be called Swift Foods Ltd. In itself, talent management denotes the anticipation of essential human capital that an organization may need at a given time, then setting a plan and then carrying out that that plan to meet organizational needs. So sacrosanct is talent management in aiming at specific performance target that it has become the science of employing strategic human resources [HR] to strengthen organizational value and to help the organization reach its value. Determining the Key Com ponents of Talent Management, Including Identifying, Assessing, and Developing Talent There are several components of talent management. The first component involves identification. ... Apart from academic credentials, Swift Foods Ltd may use overall individual performance of the potential recruit in the interview, experience and letters of recommendation, among others. Academic credentials for instance will help Swift Foods Ltd ascertain formal skills and expertise an individual candidate possesses, in light of the office to be filled, while experience will help the organization determine the degree of the candidate's ability to perform. Testimonials for instance will help ascertain the behavioral predisposition that a given candidate possesses, in relation to the role that he is to discharge. All these factors will be important in identifying talent since talent is an element compounded by other desirable attributes such as personal traits, skills and abilities. The second component of talent management is the assessment of talent. This involves, setting performance target for an employee and then analyzing his actual performance against the already-set target. It is from this juncture that measures may be taken to uphold and enhance the talent that is extant and to inculcate upon the employee, new talents that are desired in the organization. To develop talent, there are several strategies and approaches that may successfully apply. Swift Foods Ltd can use the compensation management system, where it maintains competitive remunerations while managing payroll costs, total compensation, compensation for planning and awarding and pay-for-performance arrangements. Going by the recommendations that Fayol (2010) makes, the organization can also use global human resources that help maintain and manage core elements of the global workforce- county-specific attributes also included. Swift Foods Ltd may

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Themes in Lord of the Flies Essay Example for Free

Themes in Lord of the Flies Essay There are various outlooks of a man in the novel ? Lord of the Flies.? Piggy and Ralph viewed man as being essentially good and that evil happens because something was wrong with people. Jack used power over others and believed that forces more powerful than him must be appeased through ceremony and sacrifice. Simon believed that both good and evil lay within each person. William Golding? s point of view is also represented by one of the characters. Piggy and Ralph believed that man was essentially good and when something was wrong with a person, evil arose. They emphasized in law and order from the day of the arrival on the island. One night Ralph and Piggy went to Castle Rock to regain order but Jack? s refused Ralph? s status of chief. Ralph and Piggy also believed that they could use the conch on Jack? s side of the island but Jack did not agree. the conch doesn? t count at this end of the island (Page 166). Piggy and Ralph believed that the conch and Ralph? s status would work everywhere because they still believed in law and order. In one incident Jack Roger and the Maurice went to the shelters where Samneric, Ralph, Piggy and the littluns were sleeping. That night the three men arrived at the shelters and stole Piggy? s glasses after a fight. Ralph and Piggy were furious and all Piggy wanted to do was reclaim his glasses, ? I just take the conch to say this. I can? t see no more and I got to get my glasses back. Awful things has been done on this island (Page 188) what? s right is right. Give me my glasses, I? m going to say ? you got to!? (Page 190). Piggy and Ralph believed that Jack would return the glasses because stealing was wrong, therefore Jack had to. Ralph and Piggy believed that if Jack had wanted fire all he had to do was asked them for it. The two did not know that the glasses were stolen as a representation for power over Piggy and Ralph. Without the glasses Piggy is vulnerable and weak. Furthermore Piggy and Ralph had lost their means of comfort, warmth and rescue. Towards the end of the novel after Piggy? s death, Samneric warned Ralph about Jack? s plan to hunt him. The twins also told Ralph that Roger was going to sharpen a stick at both ends. Ralph did not understand this. Ralph was going to be sacrificed like the sow. Jack used power over others. During the first meeting on the island Ralph appointed Jack and his choir to be hunters because he sensed Jack? s need for control. During the beginning of the book Jack understood fear after he experienced the feeling of being watched and hunted. The understanding of the dear allowed Jack to use the fear in a different manner. Jack? s painted face used as a mask to cover his identity. This made him feel liberated from consequences. The feeling of anonymity gave him confidence what he wanted to do. Jack used chants and dances as a way of dealing with the fear. Jack believed that forces more powerful than him must be appeased through ceremony and sacrifice. The fear of the beast and the idea of the beast was a large issue on the island. Jack? s idea of appeasing the beast and soothing fears of the beast was barbaric. Jack and the sexually killed a sow, which they later beheaded. The placed the head of the sow on the end of spear while the other end of the spear was stuck into he ground. ?The head is for the beast. It? s a gift. (Page 151). One night all the boys except for Simon were gathered together at Castle Rock. The heard thunder and saw little flashes of light at the distance. It had also begun to rain. To overcome the fear they began to chant, ? Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood!? (Page 168). They became mesmerized by the chant. Simon was noticed crawling out of the jungle. The boys formed a horseshow to trap Simon. The all had the urge to hurt and kill Simon. Jack? s need to be I control grew stronger and fiercer with the novel? s progression. Simon represented the purity found in man. He was a unique child who believed that both good and evil resided within each person. Through the story Simon acted as the Christ figure. Simon was epileptic and had E. S. P. Simon foresaw the fate of Ralph and his own. ?You? ll get back all right. I think so, anyway.? (Page 121). Simon viewed his fate and witnessed the killing of the sow. Prior to one of his seizure? s he saw his death. The Lord of the Flies spoke to him and said, we shall do you. See? Jack and Roger and Maurice and Robert and Bill and Piggy and Ralph (Page 159). Shortly before his death he came to the realization that the beast was not a creature but something that was within Jack and the hunters. He believed that he should tell the truth despite the consequences. In turn he was sacrificed for the continuation for the evil on the island. William Golding? s view of a man was shown through Simon. Simon saw and understood both the good and morality that was inside of Ralph and the evil that was inside of Jack. The longer the boys were isolated from civilization, the ones who held the beast inside of the, developed and became primitive, destructive and savage. As time away from civilization grew the close they reached destruction and chaos. The main outlooks of man represented in the novel were shown through Piggy, Ralph, Jack and Simon. Jack used his power to manipulate and power over others and when he was in the presence of more powerful forces he used ceremony and sacrifice to calm the force and ease the fear. Simon knew that both good and evil were within a person. Golding viewed civilization as a surface covering a person? s true potential for evil. Lord of the Flies proved that dark side of human nature could be as vicious and as terrifying as the unknown itself, and even the most innocent of use are vulnerable to it.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Pandas Essay -- essays research papers fc

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The giant panda only exists at present in six small areas located in inland China. The habitat, suitable for the bamboo on which it survives, is a cold, damp coniferous forest. The elevation ranges from 1,200 to 3,400 meters high. In most of the areas in which they still roam wild, they must compete with farmers who farm the river valleys and the lower slopes of the mountains. It is estimated that there are somewhere around 700 and 1,000 giant pandas still alive in the wild. Because of their reliance on bamboo as their primary food, they will remain in significant danger unless their present habitat is expanded. The differing varieties of bamboo go through periodic die-offs as part of their renewal cycle. Without the ability to move to new areas which have not been affected, starvation and death will certainly occur for the giant panda. Such die-offs of the bamboo also put the giant pandas in more direct contact with farmers and poachers as the bears try to find new areas in which to feed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pandas have few natural enemies other than man, so the life-span of giant pandas in the wild is thought to be twenty-five years or more.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Giant pandas have forepaws which are extremely flexible. Evolution has given them an enlarged wrist bone that works in the manner of an opposable thumb. This highly functional adaptation allows the giant panda to manipulate their primary food source, bamboo stems ...

Monday, January 13, 2020

The American Dream Reasearch Paper

Zac Duncan Mrs. Hill English 6th February 3, 2013 Many people believe the American Dream today has faded. It is no longer achieved as often as in the past. Although obtaining the Dream has become difficult, people still haven’t stopped pursuing it. Despite the obstacles, the American Dream is still full of hope and enlightenment both financially and emotionally. The American Dream is known for its positive connotation, but there are many obstacles surrounding it. According to, â€Å"Obstacles to the American Dream†, by Eddy Isango, the Dream is toughest for immigrants.Many immigrants have problems learning the English language. When they arrive it is as if they have to start all over. Immigrants also don’t receive state benefits such as health care and food stamps. They have to find jobs that provide these for them, which is tough with the lack of job opportunity and rising cost of living in America. Financial obstacles of the American Dream can be overcome. Riev a Lesonsky encourages people to get over these hills by saying, â€Å"Acknowledge the hard times† (Lesonsky 1). People believe the Dream is changing. â€Å"Today, they say, the ‘dream’ is more likely about making money†, (Lesonsky 1).People have moved towards opening small businesses to achieve their financial dreams. These businesses, over time, increase the revenue of the people. The American Dream is still filling the emotional needs of people. Jeremy Pratt has dealt with a learning disability his whole life, but doesn’t let this stop him from achieving his dream as he says: ‘I’ve always had to work a bit harder than my friends without disabilities,’ says the 28-year-old. ‘But I finally feel like I’m on the way to having what everyone dreams of. ’ Pratt’s diligence in saving money is paying off; he plans to start house hunting as early as 2013. Blatt 1) Jeremy is achieving his life-long goal of buyin g a house filled with his art. He fought through his disability and obtained what he wanted. The American Dream still has appeal to Americans today. People still strive for a better life for themselves and their families. The freedoms of America allow for people to obtain their financial and emotional dreams that they have longed for. Works Cited Blatt, Burton, Jeremy Pratt. Achieving the American Dream. February 5, 2013 Isango, Eddy. Obstacles to the American Dream. February 3, 2013 Lesonsky, Rieva. The American Dream is Alive and Well-and Transformed. February 3,2013

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Value of Life Essay - 1133 Words

Should people put the value of life into monetary value or should life be kept solely as an emotional quantity? People and societies throughout the ages have been trying to answer the problem of putting the value of life into terms of dollar bills. The ancient Egyptians buried their dead with all of their worldly belongings. They believed a person’s monetary worth on Earth was over, and they should take all of that earthly worth with them to the afterlife. Modern day Americans are different from the Egyptians. Today people believe that the families of the dead should be compensated for â€Å"their† loss. It is true that life is a precious commodity much like a diamond. But unlike a diamond, life has no set monetary value. But today’s†¦show more content†¦Is it more important in society to â€Å"make babies† than it is to just live your life? What about people who haven’t yet had a chance to start a family because their lives were cut so short? Now all that money sounds like a blessing, doesn’t it? Well now that you have your foundation money, now you have to subtract the money you get from life insurance, pension, Social Security death benefits, and worker’s compensation. After these â€Å"little† subtractions, you now have the total that you are going to receive from the government’s fund. Now you are going to be hit with new questions after all this, for example is a rich man with high life insurance, high pension, and no children worth less than a poor man with no life insurance, no job, and ten children (Ripley 13)? The answer to all these questions is no. The lives of all people should be valued at the same price, if you are to set a price at all. A rich man should be the same as a poor man; a woman with no children should have the same life value as a woman with seven kids. The point is that if the government is going to put a monetary value of a human life, than it should be the same for everyone. â€Å"We hold these truths to self-evidence: that a ll men are created equal† (King Jr.). There are many arguments against putting a money value on human life and two of the most impressive come from Alephonsion Deng and Lance Armstrong. AlephonsionShow MoreRelatedThe Value of Life1206 Words   |  5 PagesThe Value of Life Human life is one of the few natural rights in life that cannot be valued by wealth, or taken in for exchange by any tangible object. Human life is precious and fragile and should be treated as such. Each person s individuality and capability is a prime factor that exemplifies the need humans have to be valued, all life is equivalent, but should be equal in the highest plausible factors. Human life cannot simply be put with a price, for each life is valued at a price that isRead MoreThe Value to Life1038 Words   |  5 PagesThe Value to Life; Society vs. Self   Ã‚     Today, our society assigns the value to human life based on which life is actually more appealing to them. In other words, society places a price tag on a man’s life. A person is judged by society on the value of their life based on certain factors and aspects that are irrelevant. People realize the true value to their lives when they are in encounter with situations that may take it away. And because the value of life is so precious, society should determineRead MoreThe Value Of A Life1454 Words   |  6 Pages â€Å"What is the value of a life?† This is a question that has plagued humanity for thousands of years. There doesn’t seem to be a definitive answer even after years of long thought and study. The main reason revolves around the idea of determining which qualities are needed in order to measure the â€Å"value of a life†. For example, is a person’s net worth the most important quality that needs to be considered or should oth er things be considered such as how many people was this person able to make happyRead MoreThe Value Of A Life1415 Words   |  6 PagesKathleen Sullivan Professor Janice Shiu GOVT 35 23 September 2014 The Value of a Life Countries less privileged than America face the reoccurring issue of being taken advantage of. This occurs because these countries have high unemployment rates and are in poverty so they are given jobs through American factories. This process, though, is not always a fair one. Haiti and China are both countries with bad labor regulations, usually by American influence, and this hurts the welfare of these countriesRead MoreValue of a Human Life1400 Words   |  6 Pages Value of a Human Life What is an individual worth in currency? From birth an individual is worth something. Individuals tend to value life with emotion and ethics. Money is not usually placed into the equation of valuing human lives when one thinks about it. Society however, is all about money. People are life and it costs to live. There is always a need for money in life and society acknowledges that. Death is the absence of life, so what is the end value of an individual when life is over? ThisRead MoreThe Value of Human Life1514 Words   |  7 PagesThe Value of Human Life: A Comparison amp; Contrast on Various Models Employed Faculty of Economics Outline There is increasing debate on the question in what value should be placed upon human life. Numerous agencies and policy makers have taken great interest in tackling the issue of human life valuation. Although there is increasing controversies that surround producing estimates for valuing a human life, it is imperative to understand the importance of reaching an economic valueRead MoreThe Value Of Human Life907 Words   |  4 PagesValue of human life Everyone thinks human life is valuable. Some of those against capital punishment believe that human life is so valuable that even the worst murderers should not be deprived of the value of their lives. They believe that the value of the offender s life cannot be destroyed by the offender s bad conduct - even if they have killed someone. Some abolitionists don t go that far. They say that life should be preserved unless there is a very good reason not to, and that the thoseRead MoreThe True Value Of Life1405 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Worldly fame, power, and money are all great values in life; but the greatest value of all, in life, is love.† Christian muse’s to himself as he walks down the stairway of the San Francisco airport terminal. He makes his way to the taxi ward for a ride to the Sunshine cruise liner. It will be en route from San Francisco, California to Honolulu, Hawaii. It will pass through vast seas, emerald tropical islands, and reflect the beauty of the ocean life. For all this Christian will walk down its planksRead MoreThe True Value Of Life Essay964 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Worldly fame, power, and money are all great values in life; but the greatest value of all, in life, is love.† Christian muse’s to himself as he walks down the stairway of the San Francisco airpor t terminal. He makes his way to the taxi ward for a ride to the Sunshine cruise liner. It will be en route from San Francisco, California to Honolulu, Hawaii. It will pass through vast seas, emerald tropical islands, and reflect the beauty of the ocean life. For all this Christian will walk down its planksRead MoreDeath And The Value Of Life966 Words   |  4 Pageswas the last time I saw him. At the age of 5, I lost my grandfather to heart attack. Memories stretching as far back as I could remember, I was engulfed in a harsh reality of life and how easily it can slip away like sand in between distant fingers. This experience opened my eyes to the reality of death and the value of life. I come from humble beginnings. As a child, I grew up in an immigrant family. Merely observing my parents, I recognized that being determined while having a work ethic was the