Saturday, December 28, 2019
Musical Therapy Ã¢â¬Å"Music, even in situations of the greatest of horror, should never be painful to the ear but should flatter and charm it, and thereby always remain music.Ã¢â¬ (Mozart). Music is pervasive in everyday life. It is used as a means of communication. It allows us to better oneself, and continues to be an outlet for creativity that is ever changing in this era. The use of music in a therapy session dates back to ancient times and has even been discovered in ancient biblical scriptures. Ã¢â¬Å"The National Association for Music Therapy (N.A.M.T) was established on June 2, 1950 in New York and has been the basis for Musical Therapy since and continues to allow the growth and progression of therapyÃ¢â¬ (History of Music Therapy). From the article; How Does Music Therapy Work; Ã¢â¬Å"At its core, music therapy is the interaction between a therapist, a client (or clients) and the use of music. Ã¢â¬Å"A music therapist assesses the client(s) and creates a clinical pla n for treatment in conjunction with team and client goals, which in turn determines the course of clinical sessions. A music therapist works within a client-centered, goal-directed frameworkÃ¢â¬ (How Does Music Therapy Work?). While music in general is a great thing, there is an unlimited range for possibilities for use in therapeutic practice. Musical therapy is critical because of the mental, physical and social benefits it provides. To begin,let s look at some of the mental benefits that music therapy provides. From Dr.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
CHRISTINE VALENTINE this very young age Steven is automatically thinking change is bad every time his stepfather would go out Steven in his mind, knew what was going to happen they would be nervous wrecks waiting his return and there the vicious cycle starts, Steven starts school and flourishes due to the structure being built up, socialisation beginning and the same thing every day this become Stevens safe place, where he can relax without the fear of his step Father bursting in shouting and screaming. And this approach follows him through his school life enabling to have his stability support and care he is seeking. Outcome 1 I will endeavour to explain the family structures and experiences, that Steven hasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Stevens home life was not as stable as he had, had a lot of changes happening in his life from living within a 2 parent family, getting the support and care from both parents, then having to adjust to living with just his Mother, and not seeing his Father, then again another person moving in, getting used to their way of doing things and having to share his Mother with another person again, then his Brother being born, this must have been a confusing time for Steven. This period in his family life should have been one of support, care, nurturing from both parents. During these early stages of Primary socialisation, Steven was learning the skills he needed to take him through life from his Mother and Father then, just from his Mother this changes with the appearance of the step Father, this could have been due to the different parenting skill between Stevens Mother and St ep Father for instance maybe his Mother did not agree with smacking the children and the step father did there is conflict which Steven could pick up on (Haralambos-Holborn-Sociology-Themes-Perspectives p185 n.d.) Also Steven will pick up his secondary socialisation via school and his peers but at home these skills are lacking as the teachers are noticing a change to Stevens behaviour as he is becoming withdrawn. When asked by his teachers if anything was wrong Steven said no, his teachers kept an eye on
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Shintoism In Japan Essay Shintoism is the indigenous and national religion of Japan. The word Shinto means the way of the gods. Shintoism is a nature worship based religion. Shintoism is a unique religion with its own concepts on deities, ethics and life. Shintoism is based on the beginning of the race when the trees and the herbs had speech(Underwood 16). At the beginning of the Earth, Shinto followers believed, that the animals acted and spoke like men. The religion does not directly deal with common religious themes of; problem of evil, mans consciousness of sin and his need for redemption. Shinto followers believe that spirits exist everywhere whether good or evil. The religion is unorganized worship of these deities. The name given to these spirits and deities are Kami. Kami is a key concept in Shintoism and is difficult to define. All that is wonderful is God, and the divine embraces in its category all that impresses the untrained imagination and excites it to reverence or fear. (18) Objects of worship included: the sky, heavenly bodies, mountains, rivers, seas, trees, beasts, great fishes, reptiles and the process of reproduction in nature and humans. There are four historical written sources, which provide scholars with infor mation on the beginnings of Shintoism. The first of these books is the Kojiki, which means records of ancient matters. The Kojiki was written in a combination of archaic Japanese and Chinese. The book was compiled in 712 CE by an emperor who feared that many variants may destroy the foundation of the monarchy. The books principle aim was to demonstrate the divine origin of the ruling family and the foundation of the state. Some refer to this book as the Bible of the Japanese. This is not true as it is not regarded as inspired or to possess any doctrinal interest, Shinto has no sacred texts. The second book is titled the Nihongi, which means the chronicles of Japan. The Nihongi was written entirely in Chinese. The book was compiled in 720 CE and covers much of the same material as the Kojiki with alternate versions of myths or events. The third book is the Yengi-shiki, meaning the institutes of the Yengi period. The book was compiled between 901-923 CE and describes the rituals pract iced during the Yengi era. It contains a few ancient prayers and is an important source for the ceremonies of Shinto. The final book is the Manyo-shiu, meaning the collection of myriad leaves. It was written in the late eighth or early ninth century and contains a collection of four hundred poems. The poems celebrate the splendors of the Japanese landscape. In the seventh century the Shintoism gained some coherence by being related to the emperor. The Kojiki established the emperor as a direct descendent of the Sun-Goddess. To secure the loyalty of his subjects the old myths were retold and elaborated and the emperor became a divine figure. The Kojiki shows how the emperor can trace his descent from the Sun-Goddess and through to Izanagi and Izanami the two primal deities who gave birth to the gods and the islands of Japan. The elaboration of Shinto in the interest of the monarchy is the really characteristic feature of Shinto and its typically national form. (19) An issue of debate among Shinto scholars is on the question of whether ancestor-worship had always existed or whether it had been imported from China. There is an important distinction to be made between a cult of the dead and a cult of the ancestors. A cult of the dead is based on a fear that if the dead are neglected, they will haunt or harm the living. A cult of the ancesto rs, however, is based on spiritual fraternity in which offerings are not made through fear but to promote the family. It is now generally regarded by most scholars that Shintoism included nature-worship and a cult of the dead prior to Chinese contact. After the Chinese arrival true ancestor worship began and these spirits took their place alongside the Kami and received veneration not based on fear. The key mythology of Shintoism is based on the creation of Japan. The first to appear were three deities who are said to have emerged out of the primeval chaos, which is likened to an ocean of mud veiled in darkness. These three deities disapear without leaving a trace. Two deities followed, when the Earth was just beginning, These two also vanish without leaving a trace. Two more follow and disappear. Five more couples follow the final two being Izanagi, meaning the male-who-invites, and Izanami, the female-who-invites. The gods prior to Izanagi and Izanami are referred to as celestial deities to distinguish them from earthly deities who are said to have walked on the Earth. Some scholars think these heavenly deities may have been deities no longer worshipped in Japan. It is more likely they were inventions to eke out genealogical tree for the greater divinities who came afterwards.(24) Izanagi and Izanami were ordered by the celestial deities to come to Earth to produce the terrestrial world. They were given a spear and, standing on the floating bridge of heaven, they push the spear into the mist and stir the briny silt below. They draw up the spear and the brine on its tip forms the island of Onogoro. They descend to the island where they erect a pillar and palace. After completion of the palace and the pillar the notice their sexual differences and are filled with the desire for sexual union. Izanami speaks first saying, oh, what a beautiful and amiable youth. Izanagi replies, oh, what a beautiful and amiable maiden. They then embraced as man and wife. Their un ion results in the birth of a child, Hiruko meaning child of the sun. The child is evil and is put on a boat and sent adrift. They have another child who is also seen as evil. The couple return to heaven to find out why their offspring are evil. They are told that it is because Izanami spoke first, and they are told to descend back again and amend your words. They return and give birth to eight great islands and then the smaller ones. After giving birth to all the countries they give birth to more Kami. In all they produce eighty countries eight hundred myriads of Kami, the eight great islands, the sun mountains and rivers. The last Kami they create is the Fire Kami. Izanami is burnt very badly by the Kami and eventually dies and withdraws to the underworld. Izanagi in a fit of wrath draws his sword and cuts the fire Kami to pieces, thus creating further Kami. Izanagi goes to the underworld to visit his wife. Upon his arrival she asks him not to look at her disfigured form. Izanagi sees her and is horrified, he quickly flees with her chasing him. He makes it to the upper world safely, where he must purify himself from the experience. Ethics in Shintoism are fairly vague. Ethics in Shintoism can be described as situational ethics (Ross 108). In each situation an answer must be earnestly sought and then put into practice. There are no definitive answers, it depends on the particular circumstances and the individual. The basic attitude towards life can be expressed by the word makoto. Makoto is common among both humans and Kami. It is usually translated as honesty, conscientiousness or truthfulness. A person who practices makoto is true to the whole situation. This person is in harmony with Kami and is doing their best under the circumstances. When a person is untrue to a situation and does harm to themselves or others it is not due to a source of evil inside of oneself. Evil is seen as arising from external influences. The Environmental Ethics Of Coal EssayThe concept of soul in Shintoism is also fairly vague. The word Tama is used, which means beautiful jewel or mysterious rock, to describe a spirit or soul. A variation of this is Tamashii, which meant ball windÃ¢â¬ ¦this would correlate it with the ancient words for soul in other languages, suggesting wind, air, or breath. (112) Four spirits are mentioned: the spirit to rule with authority, ara-mi-tama, the spirit empowered to lead to harmony or union, nigi-mi-tama, the spirit causing mysterious transformations, kushi-mi-tama, and the spirit imparting blessings, saki-mi-tama. The early Japanese believed a person has several kinds of souls. Shintoism believes that a persons soul can temporarily leave their bodies. Many rituals are dedicated to the pacifying of the soul. Shintos view of human nature is that it is fundamentally good, there is no inherent evil or badness in people. The worlds of the Kami and humans is believed to be the same. They live and participate with another. Humans are believed to be the descendants of Kami and have them in their flesh. There is no final goal of heaven or paradise. The goal of the faith is the flourishing of all people. Having the right inner attitude includes having the right attitude towards nature. Shinto lacks a judgmental approach to life as well as any code of law. Shinto shrines are typically very simple and always constructed of wood. They have never built a stone cathedral; their holy places were temples of nature wherein a group of huge trees rivaled a Gothic tower.(Underwood 50) Every Shinto shrine has a tori-i standing at its entrance. It is a simple structure, either in wood or stone, made up of two quadrangular beams laid horizontally above the head and supported by two round columns.(51) The shrines are generally made up of two rooms. The first room is one of general worship where all devotees can use. The other room is upon only to the priesthood and contains the emble m of the deity to which it is dedicated. Each temple also has a gohei, which is a small pole of wood or bamboo in which is inserted a piece of paper or cloth, so cut that the two parts hang down on the two sides of the pole and each part looks plaited.(51) The only visible objects of worship are the emblem of the deity. There is also a shintai, god-body, usually a mirror but sometimes a sword, pillow or round stone. A famous example of this is the mirror of Amaterasu in Ise. It is believed to be the a mirror given by Amaterasu to her grandson. The mirror has never been seen by human eyes. It is wrapped in a silk bag, and when the silk is deteriorating another silk bag is placed overtop. Daily worship at Shinto Shrines is not congregational but individual. A worshipper enters the shrine presents their offering bowing before and after. The priests serving in these ceremonies glide in and out of the sanctuary in silence. These offerings consist of products of the earth and ocean. Often fish, vegetables birds or sake are offered. The offerings are brought one after another and are raised to the forehead. After the ritual is recited the worshipper is lead away by the priest. The offering is believed or hoped to cleanse the devotee from impurity. On some occasions dances with music and dramatic representations are given in front of worshippers. No systematic instruction is ever given to the people by the priests. There are also ceremonies which are held and are classified by the Yengi-shiki as: the Greater Ritual, the Middle Rituals, and the Lesser rituals. The Oho-nihe, great tasting, is the Greater Ritual. The ceremony was celebrated by the emperor in the eleventh month of his accession. The ceremony consisted of the emperor offering to the gods rice and sake, which the emperor and the court would eat. It included frequent purifications and prayers to the gods. The Middle Rituals were all agricultural ceremonies which were observed annually. An example of the Middle Rituals was the Toshigohi, praying for the harvest. Prayers were offered to numerous amount of gods in hopes for an abundant harvest. The Lesser Rituals included prayers for abundant rice crops and praying for rain. In the Kojiki and the Nihongi Amaterasu is described as wearing her own divine robe at her palace and herself tasted the first fruits of the year in order to worship the Father Kami of heaven. This representation of Amaterasu depicts her as priestess and Kami. Each priest in Shintoism holds a position of authority due to its close connection with the state. Every Emperor in Japans imperial lineage has served as both sovereign and priest. The Emperor was head of the Shinto f aith as well as head of the nation. This in turn transferred down the ranks. The heads of the provinces were also head of Shintoism in that province. The head of each clan was the head priest for that particular clan. And the head of each family was the head priest of that family. And even today the priests of Japans over 50 000 Shinto shrines are under state control. Shintoism is a uniquely Japanese religion. It is inseparable from the Japanese state and is critical in defining Japanese culture. Shintoism is a thriving religion as many people in Japan follow both the teachings of Shintoism and Buddhism without any difficulties. The religion stresses the importance for respect of nature and oneself. Religion Essays
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Terrorism Summary 1Terrorism, use of violence, or the threat of violence, to create a climate of fear in a given population. Terrorist violence targets ethnic or religious groups, governments, political parties, corporations, and media enterprises. Organizations that engage in acts of terror are almost always small in size and limited in resources compared to the populations and institutions they oppose. Through publicity and fear generated by their violence, they seek to magnify their influence and power to effect political change on either a local or an international scale. 2In their struggle to bring an end to British rule over Palestine and to reclaim it for the Jewish people, radical Jewish groups such as the Stern Gang and the Irgun resorted to terrorist acts in the late 1940s. The most notorious of these attacks was the bombing of British government offices at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem in 1946, which killed more than 100 people. Acts of terrorism by Israel's Arab adversaries accelerated in the 1960s, especially following the Six-Day War in 1967, which led to the Israeli occupation of territory populated by Palestinians. A succession of terrorist groups such as Fatah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, loosely organized under the umbrella of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), conducted commando and terrorist operations both within Israel and in other countries. In 1972 a Palestinian splinter group called Black September took hostage and then killed 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany. Alth ough the PLO renounced terrorism in 1988, radical Palestinian groups such as Hamas, Hezbollah, and Islamic Jihad have continued to wage a campaign of terror against Israel and its allies. In 1996 a series of suicide bomb attacks in Israel by supporters of Hamas killed more than 60 Israelis and imperiled the fragile peace between Israel and the PLO. Hostility to the support of the United States for Israel led to numerous acts of terrorism against American citizens by Palestinian radicals or their sympathizers. In 1983 attacks by Shiite Moslem suicide bombers on the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, and on the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut killed nearly 300 people, most of whom were Americans. In 1988 a bomb destroyed Pan American Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 people on board, including 189 United States citizens. In 1991 the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency charged two Libyan terrorists with the crime. In 1996 a truck bomb exploded outside an apartment building housing U.S. military personnel in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 19 American servicemen. 3One of the most spectacular terrorist episodes in U.S. history was the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City in 1993 by Islamic radicals. This incident aroused anxiety about the threat posed by foreign residents from nations hostile to the United States. Six people died in the blast, which caused an estimated $600 million in property and other economic damage. Trials that followed convicted six people of carrying out the attack. 4 In addition to concerns about foreign-sponsored terrorism, the United States has an ample history of domestic terrorism. Early in the 20th century, labor leaders such as William Dudley (Big Bill) Haywood openly espoused a philosophy of revolutionary violence and a commitment to the destruction of government power. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, during the latter stages of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, left-wing groups such as the Weather Underground bombed buildings on university campuses throughout the country and at corporation headquarters and government buildings in New York City. Between 1978 and 1995, an anarchist and terrorist known as the Unabomber planted or mailed homemade bombs that killed 3 people and wounded 23 others in 16 separate incidents throughout the United States. The Unabomber, who claimed an allegiance with radical environmentalists and others opposed to the effects of industrialization and technology, targeted university professors, corporate executives, and computer merchants. In April 1996 federal agents arrested Theodore Kaczynski, a suspect they thought to be the Unabomber. Kaczynski, a Harvard-educated former math professor who became a recluse, pled guilty to 13 federal charges in 1998 in exchange for agreement that prosecutors would not seek the death penalty during sentencing. The court sentenced Kaczynski to four life
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Divorcing a Culture When the Legal Procedure Costs More Than Expected Becoming a part of a different culture is not as easy as changing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes Ã¢â¬â no matter how alluring the real of foreign traditions might seem, it is still a different world with different rules. In her essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Struggle to Be an All-American GirlÃ¢â¬ , Elizabeth Wong tells her story of trying desperately to fit in the American culture and shake off the irritating Chinese lifestyle. However, it still seems that rejecting a specific culture in such a fierce way is hardly mature.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Divorcing a Culture: When the Ã¢â¬Å"Legal ProcedureÃ¢â¬ Costs More Than Expected specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ALTHOUGH WONGÃ¢â¬â¢S EXPERIENCE IN CHANGING CULTURES IS WORTH RESPECTING AS A CONSCIOUS DECISION MADE BY A PERSON WHO KNOWS WHAT SHE WANTS TO ACHIEVE, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH MORE REASONABLE TO FIND A COMPROMISE BETWEEN TWO CULTURES, SHOWING RESPECT TO THE REPRESENTA TIVES OF EACH COMMUNITY. There is the time in every single personÃ¢â¬â¢s life when (s)he needs to blend with the rest of the crowd. Thus, one can realize that (s)he is accepted among the rest of the members of society and, therefore, become its integral part. Otherwise, one can be easily ostracized and turn into an outcast for the rest of the community members to ignore at best and make fun of at worst. From the point of view of the one who is afraid not to be accepted in the community, the ideas of becoming an Ã¢â¬Å"all-American girlÃ¢â¬ expressed in WangÃ¢â¬â¢s article are quite familiar to pretty much every single person. As Wang explains, Ã¢â¬Å"The language was a source of embarrassmentÃ¢â¬ (Wang 23), pointing at the fact that she did not want to stand out among the rest of the members of the American community. An understandable stage of adapting to the new environment, the given emotion can be easily dealt with. Personally, I had a similar experience when I learned that I had to accept the culture of another country along with my native one. However, the need to be accepted among the members of a foreign society should not be spurred by the hatred of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture. What follows from WangÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is that she started detesting her own culture when understanding how weak it looked compared to the power of the American traditions. As Wang put it, as she was ten years old, she had better things to learn than ideographs copied in lines (Wang 24). However, it seems that there is too much denial in WangÃ¢â¬â¢s writing. In my personal experience, I had to accept two cultures at once when I learned that some of my relatives belonged to a different nationality; however, the given fact did not prevent me from learning about both cultures and taking the best from both.Advertising Looking for essay on cultural studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the mat urity of WongÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to Ã¢â¬Å"divorceÃ¢â¬ her culture and accept the American one, it is still a hardly reasonable step. Refusing to accept her own culture and blending with the rest of the American population might have resulted in Wong losing a part of her uniqueness. Since a personality depends greatly on the environment in which it develops, cutting off the links to the Chinese culture meant losing the opportunity to have new experiences. While there may be a lot to hate about a particular culture, most of its ideas have been time-tested, which means tthey are worth at least comparing with the ones of the American culture. Wong, Elizabeth. Ã¢â¬Å"The Struggle to Be an All-American Girl.Ã¢â¬ PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS. Ed. Lee Brandon. New York: Houghton Miffin, 2005. 23Ã¢â¬â24.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Nestle - Research Paper Example In order to improve its performance, it also shifted its executive offices to the United States. Another major organizational change took place when Nestle took its first step towards diversification by becoming a major shareholder in LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal, the largest company in the cosmetics industry. Instead of investing in developing markets like cosmetics, Nestle purchased Alcon laboratories and entered the pharmaceutical industry. The main focus of Nestle during this time was to restructure its organization by focusing on strategic acquisitions and improve its financial improvement through diversification. In the later period, however, the new CEO focused on slow and conscious organizational change. 2. Identify whether the changes were first-order and/or second-order changes and the rationale for your decision.Ã In simple words, first order change is when a company does something which is similar to that done before and is a reversible option. A second order change is an irreversib le practice that an organization adopts which is fundamentally different from the practices adopted before (Leadership and institutional change, n.d.). According to the case studies, Nestle incurred both first order and second order changes. The first change of relocating its executive offices from Switzerland to the United States during the World War 2 is considered to be a first order change because the core identity of the company as well as its organizational values were maintained. During this change, the company underwent an organizational climatic change which is a king of a transactional change. The second order changes incurred by Nestle would be the decision of global expansion and diversification. By buying out shares in LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal and Alcon Laboratories the company underwent transformational change as it had to face radical transformation as well as organizational development. This organizational change transformed the core organizational values and practices of Nest le. Together these changes made up the stream of organizational changes that Nestle went through. 3. Discuss whether or not the changes made were with an incremental approach as emphasized by Brabeck-Letmathe.Ã The CEO of Nestle, Brabeck-Letmathe, believed in sustaining and developing the strengths of the organization and introducing radical changes only if the company is facing a crisis. He believed in slow and conscious changes which are considered to be an incremental approach. He also believed that any change should only be adopted after conscious decision making which should be focused on long term rather than short term success of the organization. The first change made by the CEO was changing the entire executive board and replacing it with 10 new executive members. The CEO also focused on reinforcing and sustaining the strengths and relying on the commitment of the managers. But the overhaul of the executive board might demotivated these managers and instill in them a fea r of losing their own jobs. Also, slow and conscious growth in today`s fast paced world hinders the growth of the organization and might affect Nestle negatively. 4. Identify three examples of lessons from the front line that were evident in the Nestle case and how these issues may be overcome.